US Armies




Army of Arkansas - Theater: Western - Active: October 24, 1862 to August 1, 1865


The army was created Army of Arkansas after Union victories at Pea Ridge, Prairie Grove and Vicksburg. It was composed of troops in Union-occupied the state of Arkansas.

Commanders
  • Major General Frederick Steele (July 27, 1863 – December 22, 1864)
  • Major General Joseph J. Reynolds (December 22, 1864 – August 1, 1865)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Bayou Fourche, September 10, 1863 (Steele)
  • Camden Expedition, March 23 – May 2, 1864 (Steele)


Army of the Cumberland - Theater: Western - Active: October 24, 1862 to August 1, 1865


The Army of the Cumberland was originally known as the Army of the Ohio and was one of the principal Union armies in the Western Theater.

Commanders
  • Major General William S. Rosecrans (October 24, 1862 to October 19, 1863)
  • Major General George H. Thomas (October 19, 1863 to August 1, 1865)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Stones River, December 31, 1862 – January 2, 1863 (Rosecrans)
  • Battle of Chickamauga, September 19–September 20, 1863 (Rosecrans)
  • Chattanooga Campaign, November 23–November 25, 1863 (Thomas)
  • Atlanta Campaign, May 7 – September 2, 1864 (Thomas)
  • Franklin-Nashville Campaign, September 18 - December 27, 1864 (Thomas)


Army of the Frontier - Theater: Trans-Mississippi - Active: October 12, 1862 to June 5, 1863


The Army of the Frontier fought in several minor engagements in Arkansas, Kansas and the Indian Territory. In June 1863 the Army was discontinued but many of its regiments were formed into the District of the Frontier.

Commanders
  • General John M. Schofield (October 12, 1862-November 20, 1862)
  • General James G. Blunt (November 20, 1862-December 29, 1862)
  • General John M. Schofield (December 29, 1862-March 30, 1863)
  • General Francis J. Herron (March 30, 1863-5 June 1863)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Old Fort Wayne, October 22, 1862 (Schofield) only Blunt's 1st Division was involved
  • Battle of Prairie Grove, December 7, 1862 (Blunt, field command)
  • Battle of Chalk Bluff, May 1, 1863–May 2, 1863 (Herron) only Vandever's 2nd Division was involved
  • Siege of Vicksburg, May 18–July 4, 1863 (Herron) as "Herron's Division, XIII Corps"


Army of Georgia - Theater: Western - Active: November, 1864 – April, 1865


The Army of Georgia constituted the Left Wing of Major General William T. Sherman's Army Group during the March to the Sea and the Carolinas Campaign.

Commanders
  • Major General Henry Warner Slocum (November, 1864 – April, 1865)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Sherman's March to the Sea, November 15 to December 21, 1864
  • Carolinas Campaign, January 1865 - April 18, 1865
    • Rivers' Bridge, February 3, 1865
    • Aiken, February 11, 1865
    • Wyse Fork, March 7–10, 1865
    • Monroe's Cross Roads, March 10, 1865
    • Battle of Averasborough, March 16, 1865
    • Battle of Bentonville, March 19–21, 1865
  • Grand Review of the Armies
Note: Wikipedia includes the Atlanta Campaign. While the units that made up the Army of Georgia where all involved in the Atlanta Campaign, the Atlanta Campaign concluded on September 2, 1864.


Army of the Gulf - Theater: Trans-Mississippi - Active: 1862 - 1865


The Department of the Gulf was created following the capture of New Orleans by Admiral David G. Farragut in 1862. It served in the general area of the Gulf states controlled by Union forces and mainly saw action in Louisiana and Alabama.

Commanders
  • Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler (Feb 23, 1862 - Dec. 15 1862)
  • Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks (Dec. 15 1862 - Sept. 23 1864)
  • Maj. Gen. Stephen A. Hurlbut (Sept. 23, 1864 - April 22, 1865)
  • Maj. Gen. Edward Canby (June 3 - June 27, 1865)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Capture of New Orleans, April 25 – May 1, 1862 (Butler)
  • Fort Bisland, April 12–April 13, 1863 (Banks)
  • Irish Bend, April 14, 1863 (Banks)
  • Port Hudson, May 22 July 9, 1863 (Banks)
  • Red River Campaign, March 10-May 22, 1864 (Banks)


Army of the James - Theater: - Active: April, 1864 - 1865


The Army of the James was composed of units from the Department of Virginia and North Carolina and served along the James River during the final operations in Virginia.

Commanders
  • Major General Benjamin F. Butler (April 28, 1864 – January 8, 1865)
  • Major General Alfred H. Terry (January 8, 1865 - ? (see note below)
  • Major General Edward Ord (January 8, 1865 – August 1, 1865)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Bermuda Hundred Campaign, May 6 - May 20, 1864 (Butler)
  • Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864 (Butler) (only the XVIII Corps was involved from the Army of the James)
  • Siege of Petersburg (Richmond), June 9 – March 25, 1865 (Butler)
    • Battle of Chaffin's Farm, September 29 – September 30, 1864 (Butler)
    • First Battle of Fort Fisher, December 23 – December 27, 1864 (Butler)
    • Second Battle of Fort Fisher, January 13 – January 15, 1865 (Brevet MG Terry)
    • Battle of Wilmington, February 11 – February 22, 1865 (Brevet MG Terry, under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield)
    • Fall of Petersburg, April 3, 1865 (Ord)
    • Fall of Richmond, April 3, 1865 (Ord)(Only the XXV Corps was involved from the Army of the James)
  • Appomattox Campaign, March 29 - April 9, 1865 (Ord)

Note:Most sources show Major General Edward Ord in command of the Army of the James from January 8, 1865 to August 1, 1865. The same sources show Major General Alfred H. Terry in command of the Army of the James during the Second Battle of Fort Fisher (January 13, 1865 – January 15, 1865) and during the Battle of Wilmington (February 11, 1865 – February 22, 1865). These battles where after the date Major General Edward Ord is show to have assumed command. Clarification is needed on this.




Army of Kentucky - Theater: Western - Active: August 1862 & October 7, 1862 - October 1863


The Army of Kentucky was the name of two Union army formations. Both were small and short-lived, serving in Kentucky in 1862 and 1863.

Commanders
  • William "Bull" Nelson (August 25–30, 1862)
  • Charles C. Gilbert (September 1–27, 1862)
  • Gordon Granger (October 7, 1862-8 June 1863)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Richmond (Nelson)
  • First Battle of Franklin (Granger)



Army of the Mississippi - Theater: Trans-Mississippi - Active: February 23 - October, 1862 & January 4 - January 12, 1863


The Army of the Mississippi was the name given to two Union armies that operated around the Mississippi River, both with short existences.

Commanders
  • Brigadier General John Pope (February 23, 1862 - June 26, 1862)
  • Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans (June 26, 1862 - October 24, 1862)
  • Major General John A. McClernand (January 4 1863 - January 12, 1863)
Major battles and campaigns
  • New Madrid, February 23 - February 28, 1862 (Pope)
  • Island No. 10, February 28 – April 8, 1862 (Pope)
  • Siege of Corinth, April 29 – May 30, 1862 (Pope)
  • Iuka, September 19, 1862 (Rosecrans)
  • Second Battle of Corinth, October 3-4, 1862 (Rosecrans)
  • Arkansas Post, January 9–11, 1863 (McClernand)


Army of the Ohio - Theater: Western - Active: 1861 to 1862 and 1863 to 1865


There were two Armies of the Ohio. The first Army of the Ohio was active from 1861-1862. The first Army of the Ohio became the Army of the Cumberland. The second Army of the Ohio was active from 1863-1865.

Commanders
  • Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell (November 15, 1861 – October 24, 1862) also department commander until March 11
  • Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans (October 24 – October 30, 1862) became the Army of the Cumberland
  • Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside (March 25 – December 9, 1863) also department commander
  • Maj. Gen. John G. Foster (December 9 – February 9, 1864) also department commander
  • Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield (February 9 – September 14, 1864) also department commander
  • Maj. Gen. Jacob D. Cox (September 14 – October 22, 1864)
  • Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield (October 22 – February 2, 1865)
  • Maj. Gen. Jacob D. Cox (February 2 – February 9, 1865)
  • Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield (February 9 – March 31, 1865) also commander of the Department of North Carolina

Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Shiloh (Buell)
  • Battle of Perryville (Buell)
  • Morgan's Raid (Burnside)
  • Knoxville Campaign (Burnside), (Foster)
  • Atlanta Campaign (Schofield)
  • Battle of Franklin (Schofield)
  • Battle of Nashville (Schofield)
  • Carolinas Campaign (Schofield)


Army of the Potomac - Theater: Eastern - Active: 1861 to 1865


The Army of the Potomac fought in most of the Eastern Theater campaigns, primarily in (Eastern) Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. After the end of the war, it was disbanded on June 28, 1865, shortly following its participation in the Grand Review of the Armies.

Commanders
  • Brigadier General Irvin McDowell: Commander of the Army and Department of Northeastern Virginia (May 27 – July 25, 1861)
  • Major General George B. McClellan: Commander of the Military Division of the Potomac, and later, the Army and Department of the Potomac (July 26, 1861 to November 9, 1862)
  • Major General Ambrose E. Burnside: Commander of the Army of the Potomac (November 9, 1862 – January 26, 1863)
  • Major General Joseph Hooker: Commander of the Army and Department of the Potomac (January 26 – June 28, 1863)
  • Major General George G. Meade: Commander of the Army of the Potomac (June 28, 1863 – June 28, 1865; Major General John G. Parke took brief temporary command during Meade's absences on four occasions during this period); Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, located his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac and provided operational direction to Meade from May 1864 to April 1865, but Meade retained formal command.
Major battles and campaigns
  • First Bull Run Campaign or First Manassas, July 21, 1861 (McDowell) (as "Army of Northeastern Virginia")
  • Peninsula Campaign, including the Seven Days Battles, March - July 1862 (McClellan)
  • Northern Virginia Campaign, including the Second Battle of Bull Run, July 19 – September 1, 1862 (I, XI, XII Corps participated under the control of the Army of Virginia)
  • Maryland Campaign, including the Battle of Antietam or Sharpsburg, September 4–20, 1862 (McClellan)
  • Fredericksburg Campaign, December 11–15, 1862 (Burnside)
  • Chancellorsville Campaign, April 30 – May 6, 1863 (Hooker)
  • Gettysburg Campaign, June 3 – July 24, 1863 (Hooker/Meade, appointed June 28, 1863)
  • Bristoe Campaign, October 13 – November 7, 1863 (Meade)
  • Mine Run Campaign, November 27 – December 2, 1863 (Meade)
  • Overland Campaign, May 4 – June 24, 1864 (Meade)
  • Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, including the Battle of the Crater, June 9, 1864 – March 25, 1865 (Meade)
  • Appomattox Campaign, including Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, March 29 - April 9, 1865 (Meade)


Union Army of the Shenandoah - Theater: Eastern - Active: July 25, 1861 - March 18, 1862 & August 1, 1864 - June 27, 1864


Commanders
  • Major General Robert Patterson (April 27 - July 25, 1861)
  • Major General Nathaniel P. Banks (July 25, 1861 - March 18, 1862)
  • Major General David Hunter (May 21 – July 3, 1864)
  • Major General Philip Sheridan (August 7 – October 16, 1864)
  • Major General Horatio G. Wright (October 16 – October 19, 1864)
  • Major General Philip Sheridan (October 19, 1864 – April 22, 1865)
  • Major General Alfred Thomas Torbert (April 22 – June 27, 1865)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Summit Point, August 21, 1864 (Sheridan)
  • Battle of Opequon, September 19, 1864 (Sheridan)
  • Battle of Fisher's Hill, September 21-22, 1864 (Sheridan)
  • Battle of Tom's Brook, October 9, 1864 (Sheridan, Torbert)
  • Battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864 (Sheridan)
  • Battle of Waynesboro, Virginia, March 2, 1865 (Sheridan)


Army of the Southwest - Theater: Trans-Mississippi - Active: 12/25/1861 to 12/3/1862


Commanders
  • Major General Samuel R. Curtis (December 25, 1861 – August 29, 1862)
  • Major General Frederick Steele (August 29, 1862 – October 7, 1862)
  • Major General Eugene A. Carr (October 7, 1862 – November 12, 1862)
  • Major General Willis A. Gorman (November 12, 1863–December 13, 1863) Also in command of the Dist of Eastern Arkansas from December 3
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Pea Ridge, March 6 – March 8, 1862[ (Curtis)
  • Battle of Cotton Plant, July 7, 1862 (Curtis) only units from the 1st Division were engaged
  • The Battle of Helena, July 4-7, 1863 (Curtis)


Army of the Tennessee - Theater: Western - Active: December 20, 1861 to August 1, 1865


The Army of the Tennessee was named for the Tennessee River. It should not be confused with the similarly named Army of Tennessee, a Confederate army named after the State of Tennessee.

Commanders
  • Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant (September 1, 1861 - February 14, 1862
  • Major General Ulysses S. Grant (February 14, 1862 - October 24, 1863
  • Major General William Tecumseh Sherman (October 24, 1863 - March 26, 1864
  • Major General James B. McPherson (March 26, 1864 - July 22, 1864 (Killed during the Battle of Atlanta)
  • Major General John A. Logan (temp. July 22, 1864 - July 27, 1864
  • Major General Oliver O. Howard (July 27, 1864 - May 19, 1865)
  • Major General John A. Logan ( May 19, 1865 - August 1, 1865
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Belmont, November 7, 1861 (Grant)
  • Battle of Fort Henry, February 6, 1862 (Grant)
  • Battle of Fort Donelson, February 11-16, 1862 (Grant)
  • Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862 (Grant)
  • Siege of Corinth April 29 - May 30, 1862 (Grant, Henry Halleck)
  • Battle of Iuka, September 19, 1862 (Grant, Rosecrans)
  • Battle of Corinth, October 3–4, 1862 (Grant, Rosecrans)
  • Vicksburg Campaign, December 26, 1862 — July 4, 1863
  • Chattanooga Campaign, November 23–25, 1863
    • Chattanooga
    • Missionary Ridge
  • Relief of Knoxville
  • Meridian Campaign, February 14-20, 1864
  • Atlanta Campaign, May 7 – September 2, 1864
  • March to the Sea, November 15 - December 21, 1864
  • Carolinas Campaign, January 1865 - April 18, 1865


Army of Virginia - Theater: Eastern - Active: June 26, 1862 to September 12, 1862


Commanders
  • Major General John Pope (June 26 – September 12, 1862)
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862 (Pope, Only Banks's II Corps was involved in the fighting)
  • Second Battle of Bull Run, August 28–30, 1862 (Pope)
  • Battle of Chantilly, September 1, 1862 (Pope, although fought mostly by Army of the Potomac troops, elements of Pope's force were engaged)


Army of the West - Theater: - - Active: May 31, 1861-


The Union Army of the West forces was comprised of a combination of regular United States Army and volunteers from Missouri, Kansas and Iowa.

Commanders
  • Nathaniel Lyon, killed at the Battle of Wilson's Creek
Major battles and campaigns
  • Battle of Boonville, June 17, 1861
  • Battle of Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861


More infromation: Sources
  1. Wikipedia: (see links for each Army and the more information section.)  [Online] http://www.wikipedia.org/
  2. Helena History - The Battle of Helena  [Online] http://civilwarhelena.com/history/battle-of-helena/
  3. The Library of Congress, edited by Wagner, Margaret E.; Gallagher, Gary W.; and Finkelman, Paul; Civil War Desk Reference; New York; Simon & Schuster; ©2002, pp 376-387
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